Key Success Factors of Renewable Energy Projects Implementation in Rural Areas of Indonesia

Wati Hermawati, Ishelina Rosaira

Abstract


This paper is an exploratory study on renewable energy implementation in the rural areas of Indonesia. The study aim was to investigate the factors contributing to the sustainability of renewable energy projects in the rural areas. It mostly uses a qualitative approach. Primary data was mainly obtained from in-depth interviews conducted in site areas with the project owners, project managers, a key person in each local government, industry representatives, and the local community, including local leaders and users of renewable energy. Secondary data in the form of various official project reports was also used. The results indicated that the success of energy project implementation lay not only in good technology performance and long-term maintenance, but was also highly dependent on six key factors, namely: (1) project planning and development; (2) community participation; (3) active communication and beneficiaries; (4) availability of maintenance program, workshop and technician; (5) project management and institutionalization; (6) local government support and networks. The findings from this study provide useful insights to all stakeholders involved in the implementation of renewable energy technology for the rural areas in Indonesia.


Full Text:

PDF

References


ADB. (2015). Achieving universal access to electrification. Final Report for the Government of Indonesia. Jakarta. July.

Alvial-Palavicino, C., Garrido-Echeverría, N., Jiménez-Estévez, G., Reyes, L., & PalmaBehnke, R. (2011). A methodology for community engagement in the introduction of renewable based smart micro grid. Energy for Sustain. Dev. 15(3), 314–323. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2011.06.007)

Büscher, C. & Sumpf, P. (2015). “Trust” and “confidence” as socio-technical problems in the transformation of energy systems. Energy,

Sustainability and Society, 5(1), 1–13. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13705-015-0063-7)

Carlisle, N., Elling, J., & Penney, T. (2008). A renewable energy Community: Key elements: A reinvented community to meet untapped

customer needs for shelter and transportation with minimal environmental impacts, stable energy costs, and a sense of belonging.Technical Report. NREL/TP-540-42774. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado, USA.

De-Xin, H. (2016). Coping with climate change and China’s wind energy sustainable development. Advances in Climate Change Research, 7(1–2), 3–9. (Available online at www.sciencedirect.com, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accre.2016.06.003)

EEP Indonesia (2014). Bio-energy for a bright future: Energy and environment partnership with Indonesia 2011–2014. Jakarta: EEP Indonesia, November.

Hivos. (2016).Sumba iconic island: 100% renewable energy. Accessed on 2 July 2017 from http://sumbaiconicisland.org/sumba-iconic-island-100-renewable-energy/.

Heaslip, E., Costello, G. J., & Lohan, J. (2016). Assessing good-practice frameworks for the development of sustainable energy communities in Europe: Lessons from Denmark and Ireland. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 4(3), 307–319. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.2016.04.0024)

Hermawati, W., Thoha, M., Grace, N., & Rosaira, I. (2010). Kajian implementasi dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga mini/mikrohidro (PLTMH) untuk peningkatan usaha produktif masyarakat pedesaan [A study of the implementation and utilisation of mini/microhydro power plants (PLTMH) in increasing productive efforts of rural communities]. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Hermawati, W., & Darmayana, D. (2010). Model kelembagaan PLTMH di Indonesia [An institutional model for microhydro project in Indonesia]. National Proceeding of Perteta. Soedirman University, Purwokerto.

Hermawati, W., Darmajana, D., Thoha, M., & Rosaira, I. (2010). Strategi pengembangan usaha listrik berbasis PLTMH dalam kaitannya dengan pembangunan masyarakat pedesaan [A strategy in developing a business of electricity based on microhydro in relation to rural community development]. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Herran, D. S., & Nakata, T. (2008). Renewable technologies for rural electrification in Colombia: A multiple objective approach. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 2(1), 139–154. (doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17506220810859132)

Hoffman, S. M., & High-Pippert, A. (2010). From private lives to collective action: Recruitment and participation incentives for a community energy program. Energy Policy, 38(12), 7567–7574 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.054)

Jackson, E. T. & Kassam, Y. (1998). Knowledge shared: Participatory evaluation in development co-operation. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Magnoni, S. & Bassi, A. M. (2009). Creating synergies from renewable energy investments, a community success story from Lolland, Denmark. Energies, 2(4), 1151–1169. (https://doi.org/10.3390/en20401151)

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR). (2014). Handbook of energy & economic statistics of Indonesia.Jakarta: MEMR.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR). (2016). 12.659 desa belum berlistrik, Sudirman Said: Tahun 2016 program “Indonesia Terang” harus berjalan. [12,659 villages unelectrified, Sudirman Said: 2016, the “Indonesian Light Program” has to be implemented]. Press release number: 00017.Pers/04/SJI/2016 on 8 March, 2016, (Available at http://ebtke.esdm.go.id/post/2016/03/08/114912.659.desa.belum.berlistrik.sudirman.said.tahun.2016.program.indonesia.terang.harus.berjalan)

OECD. (n.d).Linking renewable energy to rural development. Executive Summary, Policy Brief, Paris, France.

Oteman, M., Wiering, M., & Helderman, J. K. (2014). The institutional space of community initiatives for renewable energy: A comparative case study of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 4, 11.

Pillai, G. M. (2014) Indonesia national sustainable energy strategy report on enabling environment and technology innovation ecosystem for affordable sustainable energy options. A paper prepared for Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Retrieved on 1 August 2016 from http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Indonesia%20National%20Sustainable%20Energy%20Strategy%20Report.PDF.

Radhakrishna, R. (2012). Lighting up the lives of the rural poor. Appropriate Technology, 39(2), 40. (ABI/INFORM Complete)

Rogers, J. C., Simmons, E. A., Convery, I., & Weatherall, A. (2008). Public perceptions of opportunities for community-based renewable energy projects. Energy Policy, 36(11), 4217–4226 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.07.028)

Sambodo M. T. (ed). (2015). Kemiskinan energi listrik. Memberi terang wilayah terpencil Indonesia [Poverty electricity energy: Providing light for the remote areas in Indonesia]. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Schmidt, T. S., Blum, N. U., & Wakeling, R. S. (2013). Attracting private investments into rural electrification—A case study on renewable energy based village grids in Indonesia. Energy for Sustainable Development, 17(6), 581–595.

Schneider, M., Schmidt, T. S. & Hoffmann, V. H. (2010). Performance of renewable energy technologies under the CDM. Climate Policy, 10(1), 17–37.

Sui, X. (2013). East Asian energy community building: Modeled on the European way?. Journal of Global Policy Government, 2(2), 233–244. (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40320-013-0037-0)

Tharakan, P. (2015). Summary of Indonesia’s energy sector assessment. Asian Development Bank. December 2015, Page 7.

The World Bank. (2013). Menuju akses universal memasak bersih tanpa polusi[Towards universal access of clean cooking without pollution]. Jakarta: The World Bank.

Tomc, E. & Vassallo, A. M. (2015). Community renewable energy networks in urban contexts: The need for a holistic approach. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, 08, 31–42

Walker, G., & Devine-Wright, P. (2008). Community renewable energy: What should it mean?.Energy Policy, 36(2), 497–500. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.10.019)

Walker, G., Devine-Wright, P., Hunter, S., High, H., & Evans, B. (2010). Trust and community: Exploring the meanings, contexts and dynamics of community renewable energy. Energy Policy, 38(6), 2655–2663. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.055)

Wilkins, G. (2002). Technology transfer for renewable energy. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/STIPM.2017.122

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 STI Policy and Management Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright of Journal of STI (Science Technology Innovation) Policy and Management Journal (e-ISSN 2502-5996 p-ISSN 1907-9753). Powered by OJS.